The Optical performance of a lens (or at least some aspects of its performance) can be expressed on a Modulation Transfer Function Chart (MTF). They are an objective measurement of lens performance, which can be useful for making comparisons between lenses. Of course, sometimes objective measurements miss certain factors; we all have the experience of two pieces of equipment with identical specs giving different results. Nonetheless, these MTF charts are useful.


MTF charts compare a hypothetical lens that allows 100% light transmission to a real lens, which has less than 100% transmission. We can see how the light transference characteristic of the real lens varies from the centre of the lens to the outer rim. A fairly flat line represents even light transmission across the whole area of the lens. A line that dips towards the right shows there is less light entering through the rim than there is in the centre. Flatter responses are superior, but no real lens has perfectly even light transference.


As the centre of the lens gives the best performance we can adjust the aperture of the camera so that only this centre of the lens is used. This will give sharp images. On the other hand, we might want to have our background out-of-focus, in which case we use a wider aperture which corresponds to more of the lens diameter. The softness of the out of focus background is called the bokeh. This is shown on the chart by the distance between lines taken at different aperture settings. The closer the lines are together for different aperture setting the softer the out of focus section will be. This is better bokeh.


In simple terms, the higher the lines are on the MTF chart the better. Flatter lines show a lens has more even light transmission across its whole diameter. The closer the lines are together at different apertures the softer the focus.







light heart wedding

We often don’t really notice the music playing, but if the wedding video was completely silent we would want to know what is wrong! Music is part of the video, though it should complement the images and never distract from them.


Always look to the married couple when considering the music. If they give you a list then that is a good starting point, but there is a chance the list is just their favourite songs in general, not a good choice for the wedding video. It is an indication, however. If they give you a long enough list there will probably be a few appropriate songs. Wedding videos often only need two.


Using a song that was popular with the crowd on the night is a reasonably safe bet, provided that it also suits the wedding footage. A dance number might well work with footage of the reception, but probably not with the ceremony.


Soundtracks are usually made to suit the film, but films are occasionally edited to suit the music. There is no hard and fast rule, except that the two must fit together. If you have a lot of ‘B-roll’ shots that work in isolation but not as a narrative you can sometimes make them fit together as a collage. This tends to look a little more like a preview than a story, but it can work well in moderation.


Occasionally you might add music to a background with other audio. Speeches might be best with complete silence, or you might have several highlights of several different speeches linked by some music behind them. I strongly lean towards instrumentals here, but there is probably a counter example somewhere.


Copyright Wedding Video Music.

Of course copyright on the music will almost always be an issue, and you can be fined if the video is ever shown online. Either license the music or go to sites like PremiumBeat that lets you pay once for all the music you will need. Otherwise, you might find you bride isn’t able to share the day’s video with anybody.



There is some concern about radiation and the effect is may have upon us.


Radiation is the transmit ion of energy as particles or waves. Broadly speaking this includes light and heat, as well as UV light and X-Rays. Every day we are all exposed to small amounts of UV and gamma radiation (which we can think of as identical to X-rays for this discussion); this is a natural part of the environment and cannot be completely avoided in any practical way. Australia has relatively low levels of radiation compared to some parts of the world.


North Ryde X-Rays

X-rays use very high frequency radiation to form an internal image of the human body, or of another object. The X-rays penetrates solid and liquid matter to different degrees depending on their density. The resulting image shows the contrast between dense and less dense material as light and dark tones.


The amount of exposure from a single X-ray is higher than the amount of background radiation we are normally exposed to, but not by any great amount.  A Dental X-ray is equivalent to one standard day’s exposure to radiation. A chest X-ray is equivalent to several days’ exposure.


Spending time in the Sun without protection increases the chance of serious skin problems from UV radiation. This is a greater risk than almost any medial radiation. Air travel also increases radiation exposure, but only by a moderate amount. The average person is exposed to between 3-6mSv of radiation per year, including medical X-rays. Professional pilots receive an extra 2.2Msv per year.


North Ryde Ultrasound

Ultrasound uses a technology quite different to x-rays and CAT scans. It is based on soundwaves, but at a frequency much higher than humans can hear. Any radiation from Ultrasound is quite insignificant, comparable to most household electrical equipment.


North Ryde Radiology

Radiology is useful for examining the human body and any suspected problems. The medical information about the patient is thought to far outweigh the possible effects of the short-term radiation exposure


North Ryde Medical Imaging

Some medical imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans do use radiation, but the amounts are quite low. Other imaging systems such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have no real radiation involved.







Apartments and strata complexes have many advantages, letting people have a sense of community, shared facilities, convenience of location. One of the very few downsides is the lack of space. This is usually not an issue for most people; if they really preferred space they could have bought a cheap house in a distant suburb. The advantages of strata usually outweigh this. At the same time, people rarely want their living space to feel smaller.


There is a myth that plain white walls make a space look bigger. This doesn’t really work, as it is contrast that gives the sense of space, not uniformity. Many furniture catalogues display their bold furniture on a plain background, often to great effect.  But it is the contrast between the bold colours and the plain background that makes these images so attractive. If you have this contrast in the colour scheme of your apartment, either in the walls themselves of between plain walls and bold furniture, you will have a great sense of space.


It is the contrast between negative space and colour that works to give a sense of openness; having both empty space and decoration. Using one wall of a room to house all the decorations and leaving the others bare is one way to achieve this. This decoration can be several hangings that work together, or a large glass face display cabinet. Cabinets can be filled with anything from fine china and collectables to model ships and hobbies, and because they are open they still give the impression that the space is part of the room.


Furniture helps create a sense of openness if the number of items is kept to a minimum, if they are smaller in scale, and if they keep a low profile. The low profile especially makes the room feel like there is a lot of space, even if the floor is mostly covered.


Colour schemes are important as they make a room feel clean, even when it is not. This is because we confuse tidiness with the feeling we get from bright colours and daylight. Drab colours will make a room seem small, rundown and old, even as it may be spotlessly clean. Bright colours look like a glossy magazine, even with minimal upkeep.


Strata Cleaning Sydney

A clean apartment will always seem bigger. Clutter has several bad psychological effects upon us, including lack of motivation and the tendency to move less; but just the fact that is makes the space fell smaller is reason enough to keep things tidy. The hygiene side is also important, which is where a professional cleaner comes in. Just having the floors and bathroom kept in good order is reason enough to enjoy life a little more.










Customers pay to be locked in a room. We know there is always more to a statement like that. Escape rooms appeal to the same part of us that like mysteries, puzzles and computer games; it is the same part of us that finds them frustrating. It’s not so much that we like mysteries as the fact we hate leaving them unsolved. Then again, we pay to be put in the escape room before we know what the mystery will be. Maybe we do like mysteries; maybe there is a meta-mystery – what are escapes rooms like.


Escape rooms vary a lot in scenario and detail, but they have a similar underlying premise. A small group of people, two to ten individuals, are put in a room that is metaphorically or literally locked. In order to get out they must pieces together clues and solve a series of puzzles. These puzzles and clues all connect to a theme that pervades the room. Themes vary from dungeons with Zombies to Sherlock Holmes mysteries or spy scenarios. Lateral thinking, logic, analytical approaches and many other type of crime solving techniques are required. There is no prize other than the satisfaction of figuring out the mystery in the allotted time available, usually about an hour.


Escape Room Game Sydney

CT Adventure is presently running two different escape room adventures in Sydney. Unlike some other escape rooms, where the object is only to unlock the exit door, these rooms are set us as a quest; you either steal a museum treasure or abduct an item guarded by a monster. These quest game rooms are popular for either friendly entertainment or team building exercises for companies. Booking is essential.







  • Everything is cheaper duty Free – Duty is the extra tax included in the price. This tends to be fairly low, and is sometimes a percentage, sometimes a fixed charge. The fixed charge tax works to you advantage with very cheap items; cheap whisky goes from $15.oo to $10.oo, which is a reasonable saving. But expensive $50.oo alcohol only goes to $45.oo, which makes little difference. Duty free is more a tradition than a way to save money, but there are a few good buy from time to time. You might find better shopping opportunities at your overseas destination.
  • Street food is dangerous – Some food is dangerous because we are not use to the local water or bugs, but that problem is inherent to all travellers in the country and not just the food on the street. Occasionally some street food is risky, but if you eat what the locals eat you are reasonably safe. Don’t miss out on this great aspect of foreign cultures.
  • Guided tours are cheating – this varies with the destination. A guided tour is great if you want to get as many sites done as possible, want to avoid all the organizations, and have no idea about the place or culture. The tour organizers have experience and connections and tend to get good deals; you will get value for money. On the other hand it you are visiting an English speaking country, and enjoy planning details, you might do better staying at a youth hostel.
  • Booking rooms in advance – The last thing you want is to spend you first night overseas looking for somewhere to sleep. Booking in advance prevents this. Occasionally there are scams, and you might book a room that does not exist. But if you go with something recommended by the airline or travel agent you are pretty safe. You can always book for two nights and look for other accommodation when you get there.
  • Traveller’s cheques – these use to be essential, but have been superseded by ATMs, and international credit cards.
  • More clothes means less launder. True, but you will have to carry all those heavy clothes. It is easier to do the laundry. Have clothes for three days, and buy many pairs of disposable socks and underwear.
  • Don’t talk to strangers- It is no truer in most places than back home. Talking in public places is fairly safe; avoid shady deals away from the public eye. There may be cultural restrictions between men and women taking in some places, so check this in advance.
  • Youth Hostels are untidy/dirty. Hostels tend to be plain but clean; there are probably one or two bad ones somewhere. If you just want a place to sleep while seeing the sites these are a great option.











There is a thinner boundary than expected between a person’s mind and their environment. It varies with the emotional sensitivity of the individual, but the environment affects our way of thinking. We care less about order and honest in a disorganized environment. We might continue to be honest of our own volition, but we don’t feel the same as when we are in an organized situation.


Some studies have shown that people are less honest when they are in an area that is littered and covered in graffiti. An untidy house appears to have a similar effect, even as the mess is our own. We might know we are supposed to be honest, especially in tidy surroundings, but the idea seems less relavent when we are buried in a mess. And is we are inclined to be dishonest with ourselves in such an environment we may cause ourselves some severe confusion.


It is not unusual for depressed people to be negligent when it comes to tidying the house. But this may well lead to a downward spiral. The untidy environment discourages them from caring; part of this lack of caring is not trying to sort themselves out, and part of this ties to the fact that they don’t feel they have to be honest with themselves. Truth is coherent. When we live in an incoherent world we stop caring about making ourselves coherent; we don’t care about contradictions and we don’t try to sort is all out.


We tend to sense the way behaviour overlaps in different aspects of our life. If a person has a messy house it is hard to believe they are a meticulous accountant who pays their tax on time. Maybe a few people do have this contradictory nature, but there are more individuals who once had it altogether only to let it slide over time. Tidying the house would be the first step to getting back on track.


Cleaning your environment is a way of gaining mastery of yourself. The individual doesn’t feel as helpless, and they become better at managing their life and emotions.


Home Cleaning

Professional home cleaners are great at looking after the details and maintaining a household’s upkeep. If an individual can keep their bookshelves in order the professional cleaner is there to do the dusting. But even when somebody else is helping clean house the individual life feels better for it.