Polystyrene has long been of concern to environmentalists due to its very slow rate of biodegrading. It is chemically inert, but burns quite easily. All this means it tends to stay in the environment till it is burnt and burning releases toxic chemicals. It is not surprising than there has been much interest in recycling the product.

There is a general misconception that polystyrene only refers to the white foam (EPS) used for packing materials. In fact this is not even the most common form of the product. The foam (or Expanded Polystyrene) is the low density form of the material. Polystyrene can be used to create many plastic items. It has been used in CD cases for decades, and can be recycled into clothes hangers, toys, rulers, frames and had been used to make furniture.

Polystyrene is not safe when it comes to cooking, where the same safety issues of burning come into effect. The toxic chemicals in foam can get into food, though the amount is small and it take many years of continued use before health is affected. Nonetheless polystyrene should not be burnt at normal temperatures or used in microwaves.

Interestingly polystyrene can be incinerated safely at extremely high temperatures, above 1000 degree Celsius. At this temperature the only chemical products produced are water and CO2. Given the right setup this would be a useful fuel for power generation, care must be taken, however, as burning below this temperature causes the release of many toxic chemicals.

IS Recycling is a great interest to those wanting to find a use for the material. What has previously been regarded as litter could potentially be turned into useful plastic items. Unfortunately, the logistics of this are difficult. Foam Recycling Equipment was expensive, and the collection of foam was difficult due to its bulk. This is largely changing due to the lowering cost of the EPS Recycling Machine, and the ability for companies to compress the material before transportation.

Recently it has been discovered that polystyrene can be eaten and successfully digested by Mealy worms. So far no side effects or problems have been uncovered with this; the mealy worms are healthy and produce no toxic by-products. When properly collected polystyrene many cease to be an environmental problem; it can be reused or destroyed in several safe ways.


Brake Par Suppliers – Sign of The Time For Replacement

Some parts of a car are meant to last the life of the vehicle; they are only replaced if they suffer accidental damage. Other parts of the car will steadily wear out with use; brakes, tyres, windscreen wipers and other arts fall into this category. Neglecting these issues is extremely dangerous. Tyre and brake pad suppliers stock the necessary replacement parts for all makes of cars. There is no reason to compromise car safety by not using correct and fully functional parts.

When to replace Brakes?

We know to have our brakes the moment their performance starts to change. If the brakes make a noise or show any suspicious signs, have them professionally inspected.


Tyres tread wears out with regular use and with time. Tyres should be replaced when:

  • The tyre tread is too thin. The tread should be several millimetres deep. If the tyre tread is less than the performance will quickly start to degrade, and the vehicle handling will be compromised.
  • If the wear on the tyre is uneven it almost certainly needs replacing. Ask a mechanic if in doubt. Correct wheel alignment will prevent the problem reoccurring.
  • Replace tyre after any accident that required hard braking. If the tyres suffered damage the car’s handling and safety will probably be affected. Ask a mechanic if in doubt.
  • If there are cracks appearing in the tyre wall the material is starting to deteriorate. The tyres need to be replaced promptly before they fail.
  • If the car steering wheel vibrates there is a problem, possibly with the brakes or tyres. Always have this remedied.


  • Periodically exchanging the front and back tyres will allow the regular wear to be more evenly distributed between wheels. This is recommended
  • Front wheel drive cars will wear out the front wheels more quickly. Always be aware of this tendency.
  • Old age – Tyres should not be more than five years old. Always replace after five years. Even an unused spare will degrade in this time.

Cars are complex systems. All systems are an interaction of several parts. If one part is compromised the other will be affected. Any car in good repair suffers less wear than a similar car that has faults. Any car that has one fault part will quickly wear out other parts of the car. Faulty brakes will compromise tyre wear. It makes better sense economically to keep car brakes and tyres in good repair. It is also much safer.


Brake pad suppliers such as ICER Oceania have replacement brake pads for all makes of modern vehicle.





plan b shuttle - sydney transport changes

There will never be a stable point reached with infrastructure. There will always be changes in progress or being planned. There are also countless plans that end up being abandoned. But as long as technology is progressing and as long as people are moving in and out of cities there will be modifications to the train, airports, roads and bus services.

There are plans for a train station at waterloo. This will mean a very major renovation for the entire surrounding area, with the present public housing being removed. This line may continue through to another new station at McEvoy St, Alexandria or the Green Square station on the airport line. A connection at Green square might be convenient for airport transfers, but the plans are still not finalized. The earlier option for putting the new station at Sydney University has been dropped; waterloo looks to be the final choice.

The Parramatta to Epping rail link has long since been dropped (late 2012), but servicing the two suburbs with a light rail instead seems likely. The rail link out to Rouse Hill has been in discussion for over a decade without being implemented. A T-way bus system has been doing well in this area since 2007; perhaps this is sufficient.

There are two overlapping patterns with transport changes. One is new systems and modifications being implemented to work with the perceived needs of people. The other is people changing their habits to make the most out of the transport situation. This second trend occurs more than realize; people will tend to find the cheapest fare, or find the most convenient way to get around. There may be a period of breaking old habit for new ones, but people find what works for them. When the Opal train/bus cards were introduced people soon found out how to keep fares at a minimum, travelling off-peak, making the most of price caps, and taking advantage of very cheap Sunday travel. We know, but often forget, that it is the destination, other people, the business enterprise, or one of many other reasons that actually gets us travelling. We forget how convenient the transport actually is, and end up getting on with our lives once we find a reason way to get around.

Sydney airport Shuttle transfers are set up to provide the most convenient transport to and from the airport.  Concentrate on you vacation of business trip, and keep travel time quick and pleasant with a private shuttle.

7 Ielts


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airport transfers, sydney - filling in some time on flights

We are more used to busy schedules these days, and not having to spend time in transition and travel doing nothing. This is largely due to the internet and smartphones. The half hour we use to spend traveling on the train we now spend shopping on eBay, or returning texts. Air travel is one of the few situations where this is not possible. Flight mode/aeroplane mode does give us some phone functions, but anything requiring transmission is basically turned off. This means you have games and music on your phone most of the time, but even that is not allowed during take-off and landing. And given the mediocre battery life of many smartphones they are unlikely to keep a charge till the end of the trip. As such, we need a few other things to keep us entertained.

  • Watch the inflight movie. This is obvious. Years ago the whole plane watched the same movie. And you had problems if you missed the beginning. Now there is often a screen and selection for each seat.
  • People who read all the time have no problem here. People who read occasionally might find they actually feel motivated for once.
  • Some planes have this, and it will probably become standard.
  • MP3 players. eBay has media players for $2.00, though you need a few dollars for the miniSD memory card. Problem is the battery life is only a few hours, so you might need several players. Many will charge on a USB port.
  • Talking to the person beside you can be hit and miss. Think of the Film Planes, trains and automobiles. If they are uninterested don’t push, they may simply be tired.
  • Chew gum so your ears pressurise properly.


  • Healthy snacks
  • New books, but similar to what they usually like
  • Movies on media players, preferably a new movie with familiar characters.
  • Keeping them busy is the key. Any activity will tend to last 15 minutes.
  • Window seats help.
  • Any activity that they cannot get enough of at home.
  • Earplugs (for you, not them).
  • Warn them about the severe punishment afforded children who misbehave on planes. This is a complete lie.
  • As much as possible try to accomidate the child’s circadian rhythm, when booking flights. They will sleep some of the time if you travel overnight.

Prepare before you leave.

  • Have comfitable clothing, with shoes you can remove. A jacket to remove will help if the temperature changes, especially at your destination.
  • Earplugs and or noise-cancelling headphones.
  • If they work for you use sleeping tablets and sleep the whole time. Time your schedule  so you wake up for an early morning start in the new time zone.
  • Use shuttles for Airport Transfers, Sydney airport is expensive and inconvenient when it comes for public transport.

Eyelash Extension Courses, Sydney

Some innovations solve a problem, others create a desire and then satisfy it. In the case of eyelash extensions women had always desired longer, fuller lashes.  The introduction of semi-permanent lashes satisfied this desire far better than any previous method of augmenting lashes.

Old style false eyelashes took a little bit of skill to apply, but it was the type of skill almost anybody could acquire with a little practice, and each woman applied her false lashes on a regular basis.

Professional eyelash extensions require a great deal of skill if they are to be correctly applied; self application really isn’t an option. Women who want the realistic look of semi-permanent lashes will need to have them professionally applied, but the good news is the results last several weeks. Women with semi-permanent eyelash extensions can forgo daily application and simply enjoy the appearance of their eyes,

Eyelash extensions add length, thickness and fullness to the natural lashes. Each natural lash of the eyelid has one or more artificial lashes permanently attached. These last till the natural lash grows out, giving them an effective life of up to 8 weeks. As long as these lashes aren’t exposed to some oil substances they are basically maintenance free.

Training to become a professional eyelash technician can be completed within a day, provided that the applicant has substantial background in eyelash and beauty treatments. Applicants should provide their own model.

The safety factors in eyelash application must be understood; this is part of the reason why a professional course and accreditation are important. Hygiene factors are also important, and while correct procedures are not difficult to follow once learnt it is imperative that they be understood before any applications are attempted. Eyelash extension courses and accreditation demonstrate proven methods, avoiding much trial and error and preventing potential accidents.